Just ran across https://www.cloudflare.com/en-ca/learning/dns/dns-server-types/ while trying to figure out the difference between the an authoritative nameserver and a root nameserver. I had no idea this is how DNS works.
In short, DNS requests are routed first to a recursive resolver which returns a response from its cache, or in the case of a cache miss, performs a lookup. The recursive resolver performs a lookup by first querying the root nameservers. The root nameservers respond with the address(es) of one or more TLD nameservers. The recursive resolver then queries the TLD nameservers. The TLD nameservers respond with the address(es) of one or more authoritative nameservers. The recursive resolver then queries the authoritative nameservers. The authoritative nameservers respond with the relevant DNS records for the query. The recursive resolver then caches those DNS records according to their TTL (time-to-live). When the cached records' TTL expires, they are removed from the cache and the process is repeated upon the subsequent query for those DNS records.
You learn something new every day.